The first article by Baron-Cohen et al. (2000) presents the theory of autism using amygdala, which suggests that individuals with autism have impaired social cognition because of an abnormality in the amygdala, a part of the brain responsible for processing emotions. The authors argue that this abnormality causes individuals with autism to have difficulty recognizing and responding to social cues, which may explain why they often struggle with social interaction (Baron-Cohen et al., 2000). Also, the authors suggest that this abnormality may be related to a lack of empathy and theory of mind abilities, as the amygdala is involved in both processes.
Bryson et al. (2004) review the causal mechanisms of autistic condition and discussed on recent results on emotion and attention. They suggest that autism is probably caused by a linkage of environmental and genetic factors that lead to alterations in brain development. Specifically, they propose abnormalities in the neural circuits involved in social communication and emotion regulation (Bryson et al., 2004). The authors argue that individuals with autism have difficulty regulating their emotions, which may explain why they often struggle with social interaction.
Da Fonseca et al. (2008) evaluate emotional understanding in children with disorder of hyperactivity and attention (ADHD). The authors argue that children with ADHD have difficulties with emotional processing, which may lead to social difficulties. They suggest that these difficulties are related to abnormalities in the neural circuits involved in emotion regulation and may be related to abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex, a part of the brain responsible for executive functioning (Da Fonseca et al., 2008).
Posner et al. (2011) investigate the devitalization of debilitated emotional processing with stimulant drugs in adolescents with ADHD using functional (fMRI). The authors suggest that individuals with ADHD have abnormalities in the neural circuits involved in emotion regulation, which may lead to emotional dysregulation. They propose that stimulant medication may help to attenuate these abnormalities and improve emotional processing (Posner et al., 2011). The fMRI data support their hypothesis, showing that stimulant medication increases activity in the prefrontal cortex, which is responsible for executive functioning.
Therefore, the four articles highlight the importance of emotional processing in social interaction and suggest that abnormalities in the neural circuits involved in emotion regulation may be related to social difficulties in individuals with autism and ADHD. Additionally, the articles suggest that stimulant medication may help attenuate these abnormalities and improve emotional processing.
Part 2: Real-World Issue
Mental health stigma is a pervasive issue in our society. Despite the prevalence of mental health conditions, individuals who experience them often face discrimination, prejudice, and stereotyping. The negative attitudes and beliefs associated with mental health conditions can prevent individuals from seeking the help they need, resulting in untreated symptoms and worsening mental health outcomes. This stigma can lead to barriers to accessing treatment, decreased social support, and increased feelings of shame and self-stigma. Many people misunderstand these conditions, leading to stereotypes and myths that perpetuate harmful beliefs about individuals with these conditions. It is important to understand the role that conditions like autism and ADHD play in mental health stigma and how we can address this issue.
Part 3: readings Sense to the real-world issue
The readings on autism and ADHD can provide insight into how mental health stigma affects individuals with these conditions. For individuals with autism, social communication and interaction challenges can lead to misunderstandings and negative stereotypes. This can contribute to social isolation and further perpetuate stigma. Early intervention and treatment can help to mitigate these challenges and improve outcomes for individuals with ASD (Bryson et al., 2004). In this case, for Individuals with ADHD, the deficits in emotional understanding highlighted in Da Fonseca et al. (2008) can lead to negative stereotypes and misunderstandings about their behavior. The difficulty regulating attention and behavior can also lead to challenges in academic and work settings, which may contribute to stigma and discrimination. However, as Posner et al. (2011) suggest, effective interventions can address these deficits and improve outcomes for individuals with ADHD.
The stigma surrounding ASD can create significant barriers to accessing treatment and support for individuals with the condition. In this case, the mental condition needs multiple therapy options to bring the person back to normal self. The readings used different perspective to explore on the real life issue which bound be link to a lot of bad outcome if it is not handled in the right way. Some issues include struggle with social interaction. It can also increase feelings of shame and self-stigma (Bryson et al., 2004). It is important to address this stigma and increase awareness and understanding of ASD to reduce discrimination and promote early intervention and treatment.
Similarly, Da Fonseca et al. (2008) reading focuses on emotional understanding in youngster with ADHD. The authors note that individuals with the condition may have difficulties with emotion regulation, which can impact social interactions and relationships (Da Fonseca et al., 2008). This can lead to negative stereotypes and myths about individuals with ADHD, such as the belief that they are simply “lazy” or “undisciplined.”
Therefore, it is important to address mental health stigma, aiming to promote education and create awareness about these conditions and their impact. Providing accurate information about autism and ADHD can help to dispel myths and stereotypes and promote greater understanding and empathy. Advocating for policies and programs that support individuals with mental health conditions and promote equal access to treatment and resources is also important.